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Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery

Journals: February, 1805

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1805
February
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Feb 1
1805
Clark: a cold windey Day

our hunters returnd. haveing killed only one Deer, a war Chief of the Me ne tar ras Came with Some Corn requested to have a War hatchet made, & requested to be allowed to go to war against the Souis & Ricarres [Recorees - Arikara Indians] who had Killed a mandan Some time past— we refused, and gave reassons, which he verry readily assented to, and promised to open his ears to all we Said

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Deer The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Feb 2
1805
Clark: a find Day one Deer Killed

our interpeter Still unwell, one of the wives of the Big belley [Hidatsa or Gross Ventre Indians] interptr taken Sick—

Mr. Larocke [Larocque with the Northwest Trading Company] leave us to day (this man is a Clerk to the N W Company, & verry anxious to accompany us)

Ordway: a clear morning. my hat got burnt exedantly this morning. the river raiseing one of the hunters went out a Short distance from the Fort and killed a Deer & packed it in.—

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Health Care Deer The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Feb 3
1805
Clark: the situation of our boat and perogues is now allarming, they are firmly inclosed in the Ice and almost covered with snow. The ice which incloses them lyes in several stratas of unequal thicknesses which are seperated by streams of water. this peculiarly unfortunate because so soon as we cut through the first strata of ice the water rushes up and rises as high as the upper surface of the ice and thus creates such a debth of water as renders it impracticable to cut away the lower strata which appears firmly attatched to, and confining the bottom of the vessels. the instruments we have hitherto used has been the ax only, with which, we have made several attempts that proved unsuccessfull from the cause above mentioned. we then determined to attempt freeing them from the ice by means of boiling water which we purposed heating in the vessels by means of hot stones, but this expedient proved also fruitless, as every species of stone which we could procure in the neighbourhood partook so much of the calcarious genus that they burst into small particles on being exposed to the heat of the fire. [When rocks containing calcium carbonate are heated the CO2 is driven off, leaving a powder of CaO. Trapped moisture when heated to steam will also cause rocks to break.] we now determined as the dernier resort to prepare a parsel of Iron spikes and attatch them to the end of small poles of convenient length and endeavour by means of them to free the vessels from the ice. we have already prepared a large rope of Elk-skin and a windless by means of which we have no doubt of being able to draw the boat on the bank provided we can free from the ice.—

our provisions of meat being nearly exorsted

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Keelboat The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Feb 4
1805
Lewis: This morning fair tho' could the thermometer stood at 18° below Naught, wind from N. W.

Capt. Clark set out with a hunting party consisting of sixteen of our command and two frenchmen who together with two others, have established a small hut and resided this winter within the vicinity of Fort Mandane under our protection.

visited by many of the natives today.

our stock of meat which we had procured in the Months of November & December is now nearly exhausted; a supply of this articles is at this moment peculiarly interesting as well for our immediate consumption, as that we may have time before the approach of the warm season to prepare the meat for our voyage in the spring of the year. Capt. Clark therefore deturmined to continue his rout down the river even as far as the River bullet unless he should find a plenty of game nearer— The men transported their baggage on a couple of small wooden Slays drawn by themselves, and took with them 3 pack horses which we had agreed should be returned with a load of meat to fort mandane as soon as they could procure it. no buffaloe have made their appearance in our neighbourhood for some weeks; and I am informed that our Indian neighbours—suffer extreemly at this moment for the article of flesh. Shields killed two deer this evening, both very lean— one a large buck, he had shed his horns.

Gass [with the hunting party]: A fine day. Captain Clarke and 18 more went down the river to hunt. We proceeded on 20 miles and could see no game.

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Temperature Deer Elk The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Feb 7
1805
Lewis: This morning was fair Thermometer at 18° above naught much warmer than it has been for some days; wind S. E.

continue to be visited by the natives. The Sergt. of the guard reported that the Indian women (wives to our interpreters) were in the habit of unbaring the fort gate at any time of night and admitting their Indian visitors, I therefore directed a lock to be put to the gate and ordered that no Indian but those attatched to the garrison should be permitted to remain all night within the fort or admitted during the period which the gate had been previously ordered to be kept shut which was from sunset untill sunrise.—

Ordway: pleasant & warm. the Savages continue comming to See us and to get blacksmiths work done &.C.—

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Temperature The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Feb 8
1805
Lewis: This morning was fair wind S. E. the weather still warm and pleasent—

visited by the black-Cat the principal chief of the Roop-tar-he, or upper mandane vilage. this man possesses more integrety, firmness, inteligence and perspicuety of mind than any indian I have met with in this quarter, and I think with a little management he may be made a usefull agent in furthering the views of our government. The black Cat presented me with a bow and apologized for not having completed the shield he had promised alledging that the weather had been too could to permit his making it, I gave him som small shot 6 fishing-hooks and 2 yards of ribbon his squaw also presented me with 2 pair of mockersons for which in return I gave a small lookingglass and a couples of nedles. the chief dined with me and left me in the evening. he informed me that his people suffered very much for the article of meat, and that he had not himself tasted any for several days.—

Ordway: moderate weather. we hear nothing of our hunting party yet

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Feb 9
1805
Lewis: The morning fair and pleasent, wind from S. E.—

visted by Mr. McKinzey one the N. W. Company's clerks.

this evening a man by the name of Howard whom I had given permission to go the Mandane vilage returned after the gate was shut and rether than call to the guard to have it opened scaled the works an indian who was looking on shortly after followed his example. I convinced the Indian of the impropryety of his conduct, and explained to him the riske he had run of being severely treated, the fellow appeared much allarmed, I gave him a small piece of tobacco and sent him away Howard I had comitted to the care of the guard with a determineation to have him tryed by a Courtmartial for this offence. this man is an old soldier which still hightens this offince

Ordway: Some cloudy, the water which run over the Ice in the River has froze Smoth. the Squaws from the 1st village are cutting their lodge timber on the opposite Side of the River from the Fort, So as to hale it up to the village on the Ice.—

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Feb 10
1805
Lewis: This Morning was Cloudy after a slight snow which fell in the course of the night the wind blue very hard from N. W. altho' the thermometer stood at 18° Above naught the violence of the wind caused a degree of could that was much more unpleasent than that of yesterday when thermometer stood at 10° only above the same point.

Mr. McKinzey left me this morning.

Charbono returned with one of the Frenchmen and informed that he had left the three Horses and two men with the meat which Capt. Clark had sent at some distance below on the river— he told me that the horses were heavy loaded and that not being shod it was impossible for horses to travel on the ice. I determined to send down some men with two small slays for the meat and accordingly I gave orders that they should set out early the next morning. two men were also sent to conduct the horses by way of the plain.

Ordway: high wind from N. W. Squawlly flights of Snow.

an Instance happned last evening a little Singular one of our men returning from the Mandans village 2 or 3 young Indians followed him the Gate being Shut in Stead of calling to the Guard he went round back of the Fort and Scaled over. one of the Indians followed him over. Capt. Lewis ordered the Indian away after Giving him a Scolding at the Same time telling him that he was not So much to blame as the white man Setting the example, & Gave him a piece of tobacco & Started him & confined the man for Setting Such a pernicious example to the Savages. to day at 12 oClock he was tried by a court martial. at Sunset the proceedings of The court martial came out the prisoner was Sentenced 50 lashes & laid to the mercy of the commanding officer who was pleased to forgive him the punishment awarded by the court.—

towards evening Mr Sharboner a frenchman who had been with the hunting party returned to the Fort and Informed us that he left 3 horses loaded with meat about 8 mls. down the River. the Ice being Smoth the horses could not Go on Ice with out Shoes. he Informed us also that the hunting party had killed 13 Elk 33 Deer & 3 buffaloe, one of the hunters killed 2 deer at one Shot,

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Temperature Deer Elk Buffalo The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Feb 11
1805
Lewis: The party that were ordered last evening set out early this morning. the weather was fair and could wind N. W. about five oclock this evening one of the wives of Charbono was delivered of a fine boy.

it is worthy of remark that this was the first child which this woman had boarn and as is common in such cases her labour was tedious and the pain violent; Mr. Jessome informed me that he had freequently adminstered a small portion of the rattle of the rattle-snake, which he assured me had never failed to produce the desired effect, that of hastening the birth of the child; having the rattle of a snake by me I gave it to him and he administered two rings of it to the woman broken in small pieces with the fingers and added to a small quantity of water. Whether this medicine was truly the cause or not I shall not undertake to determine, but I was informed that she had not taken it more than ten minutes before she brought forth perhaps this remedy may be worthy of future experiments, but I must confess that I want faith as to it's efficacy.—

[Jean Baptiste Charbonneau would have a varied and lengthy career on the frontier, starting with his role as the youngest member of the Corps of Discovery. Clark nicknamed him "Pomp" or "Pompy," and named Pompey's Pillar (more properly Clark's "Pompy's Tower") on the Yellowstone after him in 1806. Clark offered to educate the boy as if he were his own son, and apparently took him into his own home in St. Louis when the child was about six. In 1823 he attracted the notice of the traveling Prince Paul of Wurttemburg, who took him to Europe for six years. On his return to the United States he became a mountain man and fur trader, and later a guide for such explorers and soldiers as John C. Frémont, Philip St. George Cooke, W. H. Emory, and James Abert. He eventually settled in California and died in Oregon while traveling to Montana in 1866.]

Ordway: high wind from N. W. Squawlly flights of Snow.

6 men Sent down the River with 2 hand Sleds to bring up the 3 horse loads of meat, So that the horses might come by land to be Shod. the day clear but cold.—

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Parenting Horses The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Feb 14
1805
Clark: The Snow fell 3 inches Deep last night, a fine morning, Dispatched George Drewyer & 3 men [Drouillard, Frazer, Goodrich, and Newman] with two Slays drawn by 3 horses for the meat left below—

Whitehouse: This morning we had clear weather but pleasant.—

The officers sent 4 Men [Drouillard, Frazer, Goodrich, and Newman] with 3 Horses and two Sleds (the horses being procur'd from the North West company's Traders) to bring the Meat, left by Captain Clark, and his party to the Fort; They set out on the Ice and proceeded on about 25 Miles, when they halted to water their horses, at a place in the River, that was open near a piece of Timber'd Land, where there was a Warr path, part of the Souix Nation being hidden in that place, waiting to plunder & murder any that might pass by them, that were not of their own nation, The Savages rushed out of this piece of Woods, and Ran towards our four Men Whooping and Shouting as they came, (the Men not having finish'd watering their horses) there being near 120 of those Savages, they then surrounded our Men, and took away the three horses, but offered no Violence then to them, One of these Savages returned back to one of our Men one of the horses, The Man to whom the Indian returned the horse gave that Indian some Corn bread, and divided another loaf of Corn bread, among them, giving their Chief that was with them a large Share.— These Savages took the two other horses, and two knives from them, they then formed a half-Circle round them and held a consultation, the result of which, was that they should be murder'd by their party; which would certainly have been the case; had not two of their Warriors opposed them, and would not agree to its being done, the Savages then set the four Men at liberty, to go to the fort, These Savages proceeded down the River, to the Rick a Ree [Recorees - Arikara Indians] nation, and told them what they had done, they likewise informed the Pawne [Recorees - Arikara Indians] Indians of the same, This was told to Captain Lewis (by a frenchman who lived among the pawne Indians and was there, when this set of Indians, arrived at that Village,) .— .— The party that was robbed by the Indians returned to the Fort, at 12 o'Clock the same night, they were very much fataigued. They immediately on their arrival, gave information to our Officers. The Officers immediately called on the party for 20 Volunteers, to off early in the Morning, in pursuit of those Robbers.— Twenty immediately of them volunteered their Service, and prepar'd themselves to be in readiness by day light.—

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Snow Native American Tribes Crime Horses The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Feb 15
1805
Clark: at 10 oClock P M. last night the men that dispatched yesterday for the meat, returned and informed us that as they were on their march down at the distance of about 24 miles below the Fort "about 105 Indians which they took to be Souis rushed on them and Cut their horses from the Slays, two of which they carried off in great hast, the 3rd horse was given up to the party by the intersetion of an Indian who assumd Some authority on the accasion, probably more thro' fear of himself or Some of the Indians being killed by our men who were not disposed to be Robed of all they had tamely, they also forced 2 of the mens knives & a tamahawk, the man obliged them to return the tamahawk the knives they ran off with

[G Drewyer, Frasure, S Gutterage, & Newmon] with a broken Gun

we dispatched two men to inform the mandans, and if any of them chose to pursue those robers, to come down in the morning, and join Capt Lewis who intended to Set out with a party of men verry early, by 12 oClock the Chief of the 2ed Village Big white Came down, and Soon after one other Chief and Several men— The Chief observed that all the young men of the 2 Villages were out hunting, and but verry fiew guns were left,— Capt Lewis Set out at Sunrise with 24 men, to meet those Soues &c. Several Indians accompanied him Some with Bows & arrows Some withe Spears & Battle axes, a 2 with fusees—

the morning fine the Thermometer Stood at 16° below 0, Nought,

visited by 2 of the Big Bellies [Hidatsa or Gross Ventre Indians] this evening,— one Chief of the Mandans returned from Capt Lewises Party nearly blind— this Complaint is as I am infomd. Common at this Season of the year and caused by the reflection of the Sun on the ice & Snow, it is cured by "jentilley Swetting the part affected by throweng Snow on a hot Stone" [Snowblindness is the result of the sun's reflecting off snow causing serious irritation to unprotected eyes.]

verry Cold part of the night— one man Killed a verry large Red Fox to day

Ordway: about 2 OClock last night the 4 men who dispatched yesterday returned and informed us that they were Stoped about 25 mls. down the River by about 105 of the Souix Savages, they emediately Seized the horses cut of the collars (hooping and yelling) jurked the halters from one to another through Several hands. then they jumped on two of them and rode of uppon the run, our men with much difficulty kept the Gray mare which had a coalt at the Fort. one of the horses which they took was a fine large Gilding which belong to one of the N. W. Compy. tradors by the name of Mackinzie— the other was a publick horse as soon as we was informed of this Capt Lewis and 20 odd of the party vollunterily to go and fight. Sent word up to the 1st village to See if they would turn out the head chief & a nomber of warries came emediately to the Fort. we Got ready to Start directly but did not set out untill after Sunrise I then Set out with Capt Lewis and 20 odd more of the party. Several warries of the Mandans Set out with us but their was only 3 or 4 remained with us the whole day. we walked about 18 mls. and halted. Got Some meat that our hunters had left hanging upon a tree & boiled & eat Some then proceeded on to the place where the horses was taken. we found a Sled their which they had cut the horse out of. found also a nomber pair of moccasons at their camp. we took the Sled and proceeded on their trale untill late in the evening. we then arived at 2 old Indian lodges which we Some expected to find them their we sent in a Spy but found none so we went to the lodges and Slept all night Some of the mens feet were sore walking 30 odd mls. on the Ice to day.—

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Snow Native American Tribes Health Care Crime Horses Fox The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Feb 16
1805
Clark: a fine morning, visited by but fiew Indians to day, at Dusk two of the Indians who wint down with Capt Lewis returned, Soon after two others and one man (Capt Lewis) with his feet frosted, and informed that the Inds. who Commited the roberry of the 2 horses was So far a head that they could not be overtaken, they left a number of pars of Mockersons which, the Mandans knew to be Souix mockersons,— This war party Camped verry near the last camp I made when on my hunting party, where they left Some Corn, as a deception, with a view to induc a belief that they were Ricarras [Recorees - Arikara Indians] . Capt Lewis & party proceeded on down the meat I left at my last Camp was taken.

Ordway: clear cold morning one of our men got lame and turned back. the Indians all returned also, we proceeded on about 6 mls. to where their was Some lodges where Mr Gravelleens men was Robed last fall by some of the Mandanes. when we came in Site we Saw a Smoak which we expected that they were all their waiting for another oppertunity to Seel more horses or to attach us. we then went up the bank of the river a considerable distance above the place in to the bushes. left the horse, sled & baggage even our blankets. Capt Lewis Sent a Sergt. with a part of the men a little back from the River with orders to advance immediately after hearing the horn Sound which would be the Signal for us to fire in case of an attack. Capt Lewis went with the rest of the party down the bank of the River untill we came to the lodges, where we found that they had left place 24 hours before that, & had Set 2 of the largest lodges on fire which caused the Smoak. I then Sounded the horn the other party came up, we found they had tore down the meat pen which our men had built & left 2 Elk in it. they took the meat all away, except a fiew small peaces of buffaloe meat which they left in the small lodge which they broiled. we found that they had left the River here and took up a Steep bluff in to the praries we concluded not to follow them any further, but to turn in to hunting. Some proceeded on down the River. 4 men went down this bottom to hunt. we marched about 10 miles and camped at the upper end of a bottom on S. S. the hunters came up one of them had killed a Deer which he brought in with him 2 or 3 men of the hunters went out towards evening. one of them killed a deer & a wolf.—

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Snow Native American Tribes Frost Bite Crime Horses Deer Wolves The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Feb 17
1805
Clark: this morning worm & a little Cloudy, the Coal & his Son visited me to day with about 30 w. of Drid Buffalow meat, & Some Tallow Mr. McKinsey one of the N W. Compys. Clerks visited me (one of the hoses the Sous robed a fiew Days past belonged to this man) The after part of the day fair,

Ordway: all hands able to walk went out to hunt in different directions. aiming to drive the Game in to the bottom of wood as much as possable So that the best hunters who was in the bottom might kill them. they all returned in the evening had killed 10 deer and 4 Elk. packed Some of them in hung up the remainder on trees so as to keep the wolves from it.

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Snow Native American Tribes Horses Deer Elk Wolves The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Feb 18
1805
Clark: a cloudy morning Some Snow, Several Indians here to day Mr. McKinsey [of the Northwest Trading Company] leave me, the after part of the day fine I am much engaged makeing a discriptive List of the Rivers from Information our Store of Meat is out to day

Ordway: clear and pleasant. Several of the hunters went out eairly a hunting. the remainder moved the camp about 5 mls. down the River to a bottom where Capt. Clarks party had Some time before been a hunting, and had made a pen and put up 2 Elk and 11 deer which we found Safe as they left it. Several men out packing in the meat which was killed yesterday we fixed our camp at an old Indian cabbin near the meat pen. the hunters came in had killed one Elk & Seven deer we got the meat all packed in, Capt. Lewis concluded that we would Start for the Fort the next morning. we fleased the meat from the bones and eat the marrow out of them.

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Snow Native American Tribes Horses Deer Elk Wolves The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Feb 21
1805
Clark: a Delightfull Day put out our Clothes to Sun—

Visited by the big white & Big man they informed me that Several men of their nation was gorn to Consult their Medison Stone about 3 day march to the South West to know What was to be the result of the insuing year— They have great confidence in this Stone and Say that it informs them of every thing which is to happen, & visit it every Spring & Sometimes in the Summer [This stone is on Medicine Hill, in Medicine Rock State Historic Site in Grant County, North Dakota, south of Elgin. A sandstone outcrop at the site is covered with pictographic paintings and petroglyphic carvings.] —"They haveing arrived at the Stone give it Smoke and proceed to the wood at Some distance to Sleep the next morning return to the Stone, and find marks white & raised on the Stone representing the piece or war which they are to meet with, and other changes, which they are to meet" This Stone has a leavel Surface of about 20 feet in Surcumfrance, thick and pores," and no doubt has Some mineral qualtites effected by the Sun.

The Big Bellies [Hidatsa or Gross Ventre Indians] have a Stone to which they ascribe nearly the Same Virtues

Capt Lewis returned with 2 Slays loaded with meat, after finding that he could not overtake the Souis war party, (who had in their way distroyd all the meat at one Deposit which I had made & Burnt the Lodges) deturmined to proceed on to the lower Deposit, which he found had not been observed by Soux he hunted two day Killed 36 Deer & 14 Elk, Several of them So meager, that they were unfit for use, the meet which he killed and that in the lower Deposit amounting to about 3000 wt was brought up on two Slays, one Drawn by 16 men had about 2400 wt on it

Ordway: clear and pleasant. two hunters Stayed to find and take care of the meat 2 Elk which was left in the woods, and to hunt Some. we Set off eairly and proceeded on verry fast. the Snow and Ice thoughed on the River considerable So that it was wet & Slopy halling the Sled. we pushed on and arived at the Fort before Sunset with all our meat and Skins &.C. the men generally fatigued halling a heavy load 21 miles on the hard Ice & Snow in places which made the Sleds run hard except where the Ice was Smoth under—

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Snow Native American Tribes Horses Deer Elk Wolves The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Feb 22
1805
Clark: a Cloudy morning, at about 12 oClock it began to rain and Continud for a fiew minits, and turned to Snow, and Continud Snowing for about one hour, and Cleared away fair The two hunters left below arrived, They killed two Elk, and hung them up out of the reach of the wolves—

The Coal a Ricara [Recorees - Arikara Indians] who is a considerable Chief of the Mandans visited us to day, and maney others of the three nations in our neighbourhood.—

Ordway: rained a Short time and turned to Snow. Snowed a Short time and cleared off, the men came home last night rested today after a hard fatigue but the men who had remained at the Fort was employed clearing away the Snow from round the Barge and perogues.

Gass: Was a fine day and we again began to cut away the ice, and succeeded in getting out one of the periogues

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The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Feb 23
1805
Clark: All hands employed in Cutting the Perogus Loose from the ice, which was nearly even with their top; we found great difficuelty in effecting this work owing to the Different devisions of Ice & water after Cutting as much as we Could with axes, we had all the Iron we Could get & Some axes put on long poles and picked throught the ice, under the first water, which was not more the 6 or 8 inches deep— we disengaged one Perogue, and nearly disingaged the 2nd in Course of this day which has been warm & pleasent

vised by a no of Indians, Jessomme & familey went to the Shoes Indians Villag to day

The father of the Boy whose feet were frose near this place, and nearly Cured by us took him home in a Slay—

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Keelboat The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Feb 24
1805
Clark: The Day fine, we Commenced very early to day the Cutting loose the boat which was more difficuelt than the perogus with great exertions and with the assistance of Great prises we lousened her and turned the Second perogue upon the ice, ready to Draw out, in Lousening the boat from the ice Some of the Corking drew out which Caused her to Leake for a few minits untill we Discovered the Leake & Stoped it— Jessomme our interpeter & familey returned from the Villages Several Indians visit us to day

Ordway: a beautiful morning. all hands employed cutting away the Ice from round the Barge. found that the Ice was verry thick clear under hir. we worked hard the water came up in places untill it Got all round hir. towards evening we Got large prizes and put under hir and with much adieu we Got hir started loose and hoisted hir Stern up on the Ice found She had a Small leak where the corking worked out as She came loose. bailed the water out of hir. Got out the perogue also.

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Keelboat The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Feb 25
1805
Clark: we fixed a Windlass and Drew up the two Perogues on the upper bank and attempted the Boat, but the Roap which we hade made of Elk Skins proved too weak & broke Several times night Comeing on obliged us to leave her in a Situation but little advanced—

we were Visited by the Black mockerson Chief of the little Village of Big Bellies [Hidatsa or Gross Ventre Indians], the Cheif of the Shoe Inds and a number of others those Chiefs gave us Some meat which they packed on their wives, and one requested a ax to be made for hies Sun, Mr. Bunch, one of the under traders for the hudsons Bay Companey— one of the Big Bellies [Hidatsa or Gross Ventre Indians] asked leave for himself & his two wives to Stay all night, which was granted, also two Boys Stayed all night, one the Sun of the Black Cat.

Ordway: all hands employed fixing the road and gitting rollers. brought up the peaces for the windless and all things Got ready to hall up the pearogues on the high bank. in the afternoon we halled up the 2 perogues without any difficulty. one of them we halled up without the help of the windless. we then made an attempt at the Barge but our Rope which was made of elk Skin broke Several times. we mended it Got hir cleverly Started. night came on and obledgd. us to leave hir laying on the Skids.—

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Keelboat The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Feb 28
1805
Clark: a fine morning, two men of the N W Compy arrve with letters and Sacka comah [saccacommis, the word derives from a Chippewa word, saga'kominagûnj'. Spreng., bearberry or kinnikinick. Bearberry was often mixed with red osier dogwood, referred to as kinnikinick, and smoked ceremonially by the Indians of the plains.] also a Root and top of a plant [purple coneflower] presented by Mr. Haney, for the Cure of mad Dogs Snakes &c, and to be found & used as follows vz: "this root is found on high lands and asent of hills, the way of useing it is to Scarify [4] the part when bitten to chu or pound an inch or more if the root is Small, and applying it to the bitten part renewing it twice a Day. the bitten person is not to chaw nor Swallow any of the Root for it might have contrary effect."

Sent out 16 men to make four Perogus those men returned in the evening and informed that they found trees they thought would answer.—

Mr. Gravelin two frenchmen & two Inds. arrive from the Ricara Nation with Letters from Mr. Anty Tabeaux, informing us of the peaceable dispositions of that nation towards the Mandans & Me ne ta res & their avowed intentions of pursueing our Councils & advice, they express a wish to visit the Mandans, & Know if it will be agreeable to them to admit the Ricaras to Settle near them and join them against their common Enimey the Souis we mentioned this to the mandans, who observed they had always wished to be at peace and good neighbours with the Ricaras [Recorees - Arikara Indians] , and it is also the Sentiments of all the Big Bellies, & Shoe Nations

Mr. Gravilin informs that the Sisetoons and the 3 upper bands of the Tetons, with the Yanktons of the North intend to come to war in a Short time against the nations in this quarter, & will Kill everry white man they See— Mr. T. also informes that Mr. Cameron of St peters has put arms into the hands of the Souis to revenge the death of 3 of his men Killed by the Chipaways latterly— and that the Band of Tetons which we Saw is desposed to doe as we have advised them— thro the influenc of their Chief the Black Buffalow—

Mr. Gravilin further informs that the Party which Robed us of the 2 horses laterly were all Sieoux 100 in number, they Called at the Ricaras on their return, the Ricares being displeased at their Conduct would not give them any thing to eate, that being the greatest insult they could peaceably offer them, and upbraded them.

Ordway: about 3 oClock Mr. Gravelleen and Mr. Roie 2 frenchman came up from the Rickarees 2 of the R. Ree Indians came with them they all Informed us that they Saw the Souix Savvages who Robed our men of the 2 horses, & they said their was 106 in nomber and that they had a mind for to kill our men & that they held a counsel over them whether to kill them and take their arms and all or not. but while they were doing that our men were off and got clear, but they Say if they can catch any more of us they will kill us for they think that we are bad medicine and Say that we must be killed.

Mr. Tabbo a frenchman who is among them & Rick a Rees trading, Sent a letter up to the commanding officers & Mandans chiefs to keep a Good lookout for he had heared the Souix Say that they Should Shurely come to war in the Spring against us and Mandanes. in the evening the men returned who had been cutting trees to day for the perogues. they Said they had Several good trees cut, but had Broke Several of their axes.—

Gass: Sixteen of us went up the river about six miles, where we found and cut down trees for four canoes. While we were absent an express arrived from the Rickarees village with news that the Sioux had declared war against us, and also against the Mandans and Grossventers. They had boasted of the robbery of the 14th at the Rickarees village in their way home, and that they intended to massacre the whole of us in the spring. By this express we therefore found out that it was the Sioux who had taken the horses from our men.

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Keelboat The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

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This guide last edited 12/17/2005
This guide last revised 02/19/2009
This guide created 01/23/2005