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Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery

Journals: January, 1805

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1805
January
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Jan 3
1805
Clark: Soome Snow to day; 8 men go to hunt the buffalow, killed a hare & wolf Several Indians visit us to day & a Gross Ventre came after his wife, who had been much abused, & come here for Protection.

Ordway: Snowed this morning, Several men went out hunting this morning as the Savages Informed us that the Buffalow were comming in towards the River, but they went out first with their horses & Scared them off after killing five of them. one of our party killed a woolf they Sd Saw a nomber of buffalow. & killed one old Bull.—

Whitehouse: This morning some Buffalo came near our fort, the officers sent out 9 Men to hunt them, they returned but had killed none, One of the hunters killed a beautiful white hare, which is common in this Country.—

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Native American Tribes Snow Buffalo Wolves Rabbit The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Jan 4
1805
Clark: a worm Snowey morning, the Themtr. at 28° abov 0, Cloudy, Sent out 3 men to hunt down the river, Several Indians Came to day the little Crow, who has proved friendly Came we gave him a handkerchf & 2 files, in the evening the weather became cold and windey, wind from the N W. I am verry unwell the after part of the Daye

Ordway: Cloudy, warm morning. Several men went down the River a hunting. the afternoon blustry. Some of the hunters returned had killed one buffalow calf & one woolf.

Whitehouse: This morning Clear, and the weather was moderate, to what it had been some days past, Our officers sent out the Hunters, they all returned but 3 who remained out all night, The hunters that returned, had killed one Small Buffalo, which they brought to the Fort.— In the Evening, the weather grew very cold and the Wind blew hard from the N. West all night—

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Native American Tribes Health Care Snow Temperature Buffalo Wolves The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Jan 5
1805
Clark: Some Snow, Several Indians visit us with thier axes to get them mended,

Ordway: high blustry winds all last night & verry cold three of our hunters Stayed out all night. a cold morning. one of the hunters Set a trap last night & caught a large Grey woolf.

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Snow Temperature Wolves The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Jan 6
1805
Clark: a Cold day but fiew indians to day

Ordway: a clear cold morning. the wind high & blustry. Bratton caught a fox in a Steel trap where it had a hole through the pickets. it had freequently come through in to the Garrison after bones where we divided meat.

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Temperature Wolves The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Jan 7
1805
Clark: a verry Cold clear Day, the Themtr Stood at 22 d below 0 wind N W., the river fell 1 inch

Several indians returned from hunting, one of them the Big White Chef of the Lower Mandan Village, Dined with us, and gave me a Scetch of the Countrey as far as the high mountains, & on the South Side of the River Rejone [Roche Jaune, River] he Says that the Countrey is verry hilley and the greater part Covered with timber, Great numbers of beaver &c.— I continue to Draw a connected plote from the information of Traders, Indians & my own observation & idea—

the 3 men returned from hunting, they kill'd 4 Deer & 2 wolves, Saw Buffalow a long ways off

Ordway: a clear cold morning the wind high from N. W. in the evening the three men returned who had been down the River a hunting. had killed one wolf which they eat as they had nothing else with them. they killed also 2 Deer and one buffalo but had Suffered considerable with the cold.

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Temperature Deer Buffalo Wolves The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Jan 10
1805
Clark: last night was excessively Cold the murkery this morning Stood at 40° below 0 which is 72° below the freesing point,

we had one man out last night, who returned about 8 oClock this morning The Indians of the lower Villages turned out to hunt for a man & a boy who had not returnd from the hunt of yesterday, and borrowd a Slay to bring them in expecting to find them frosed to death about 10 oclock the boy about 13 years of age Came to the fort with his feet frosed and had layen out last night without fire with only a Buffalow Robe to Cover him, the Dress which he wore was a pr of Cabra [Antelope] Legins, which is verry thin and mockersons— we had his feet put in Cold water and they are Comeing too— Soon after the arrival of the Boy, a man Came in who had also Stayed out without fire, and verry thinly Clothed, this man was not the least injured—

Customs & the habits of those people has ancered to bare more Cold than I thought it possible for man to indure—

Send out 3 men to hunt Elk below about 7 miles—

Ordway: a clear cold morning. five men got ready to go to hunt for the man who Stayed out all night, but before they Started he came in & Sd. he had a fire & was tollarable comfortable. directly after a young Indian came in to the fort with his feet froze verry bad. it is the Same Boy that the Indians had left last night & expected that he was froze to death in the praries. we kept him in the fort and our officers took the Greatest care of him possable. three men went a hunting to Stay out Several days

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Temperature Elk The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Jan 11
1805
Clark: verry Cold, Send out 3 men to join 3 now below & hunt.

Pose-cop se ha or Black Cat came to See us and Stay all night

Sho sa har ro ra or Coal also Stayd all night, the inturpeter oldst wife Sick, Some of our men go to See a war medison Dance

Whitehouse: This day the weather still continued Cold & the Air very thin; about Noon 2 of the hunters that went out to hunt Yesterday returned to the Fort, they brought with them, 2 Elk which they had killed, some of those hunters that were out with them had went further down the River in quest of Game.—

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Temperature Elk The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Jan 12
1805
Clark: a verry Cold Day three of our hunters Joseph & Reuben Fields withe 2 Elk on a Slay Sent one more hunter out.

Ordway: cloudy 2 of the hunters came in had killed 3 Elk 4 men Sent after the meat & got it—

Whitehouse: The weather still continued clear and cold; the officers sent some of the party, for meat down the River, they took a Slide with them to bring it on.— Two more of our hunters went out to hunt this day.—

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Temperature Elk The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Jan 13
1805
Clark: a Cold Clear Day (great number of Indians move Down the River to hunt) those people Kill a number of Buffalow near their Villages and Save a great perpotion of the meat, it is their Custom that all meat is shared in common among all members of the tribe, instead of being the property of the man who killed it and his family, and leaves them more than half of their time without meat Their Corn & Beans &c they Keep for the Summer, and as a reserve in Case of an attack from the Soues, which they are always in dread, and Sildom go far to hunt except in large parties, about ½ the Mandan nation passed this to day to hunt on the river below, they will Stay out Some Days,

Mr. Chabonee (our inturpeter) and one man that accompanied him to Some loges of the Minatarees near the Turtle Hill returned, both frosed in their faces.

Chaboneu informs that the Clerk of the Hudsons Bay Co. with the Me ne tar res has been Speaking Some fiew expressns. unfavourable towards us, and that it is Said the N W Co. intends building a fort at the Mene tar re's— he Saw the Grand Chief of the Big bellies [Hidatsa or Gross Ventre Indians] who Spoke Slightly of the Americans, Saying if we would give our great flag to him he would Come to See us.

Ordway: a clear cold morning. 2 men went last evening a hunting. the Savages visit us as meat is Scarce among them they Intrude on us and we use them as well as possable. Mr Sharbinow arived in the evening with the horses loaded with Grees fat meat &.C.

Gass: A clear cold day. A number of the natives went down the river to hunt with our men. In the evening one of our interpreters and another Frenchman who had gone with him to the Assiniboins for fur returned. They had their faces so badly frost bitten that the skin came off, and their guide was so badly froze that they were obliged to leave him with the Assiniboins. This nation live near the Rocky Mountains, and about 90 miles from fort Mandan.

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Temperature Health Care Bison The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Jan 14
1805
Clark: This morning early a number of indians men womin children Dogs &c & passed down on the ice to joine those that passed yesterday, we Sent Sergt Pryor and five men with those indians to hunt

one of our hunters Sent out Several days arived & informs that one Man (Whitehouse) is frost bit and Can't walk home—

Lewis: Observed an Eclips of the Moon. I had no other glass to assist me in this observation but a small refracting telescope belonging to my sextant, which however was of considerable service, as it enabled me to define the edge of the moon's immage with much more precision that I could have done with the natural eye. The commencement of the eclips was obscured by clouds, which continued to interrupt me throughout the whole observation; to this cause is also attributable the inacuracy of the observation of the commencement of total darkness. I do not put much confidence in the observation of the middle of the Eclips, as it is the wo[r]st point of the eclips to distinguish with accuracy. The two last observations (i. e.) the end of total darkness, and the end of the eclips, were more satisfactory; they are as accurate as the circumstances under which I laboured would permit me to make them.—

h m s
Commencement of total darkness 12 28 5
Middle of the Eclips 12 57 24
End of total darkness 13 41 30
End of the eclips 14 39 10

Ordway: Sergt & 5 men went out hunting this morning to Stay out Several days. G. Shannon came in this evening and informed us that Whitehouse had his feet frost bit & could not come in without a horse Shannon & Collins killed a buffaloe Bull a woolf and 2 porkapines & a white hair.

Gass: Some snow fell this morning. Six more hunters went out to join those with the natives. In the evening one of the hunters that first went out, returned. They had killed a buffaloe, a wolf and two porcupine and one of the men had got his feet so badly frozen that he was unable to come to the fort.

Whitehouse: Some Snow fell this morning. 6 more hunters went out to join the rest a nomber of the natives went out also, in the evening one of the hunters that went out first Came to the fort, he informed us that they had killed one buffaloe a wolf & 2 porkapines, & I got my feet So froze that I could not walk to the fort.

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Temperature Frostbite Buffalo Wolves Porcupine Rabbit
The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Jan 17
1805
Clark: a verry windey morning hard from the North Thermometer at 0, Several Indians here to day

Whitehouse: This morning about 3 o'Clock the Wind began to blow from the North, & freeze which continued all this day, the Weather being very Cold—

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Temperature The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Jan 18
1805
Clark: a fine worm morning, Mr. La Rock & McKinzey Came down to See us with them Several of the Grosse Venrees

Whitehouse: This day we had clear cold Weather, about 12 o'Clock A. M. two of our Hunters came to the Fort, & informed us, that Sergt pryors party had killed 4 deer 4 Wolves, and a Brarerow,

In the afternoon two Men, belonging to the North West company of Traders came to the Fort also, they had come from the Gross Vaunters Village, they informed us, that The North West company, had Men employ'd trading at that Nation.— They told us that the Animals which are called the Brarerows, were a Specie of the Badger, which they said were common in Europe.—

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Temperature Deer Wolves Badgers The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Jan 19
1805
Clark: a find Day Messrs. Larock & McKinzey [Larocque and McKenzie with the Northwest Trading Company] returned home

Sent three horses down to our hunting Camp for the meet they had killed, Jussoms Squar, left him and went to the Village

Whitehouse: The weather continued Cold and Clear, Our Officers sent two of the Men, with three horses down the River, to the hunting Camps for meat,—the distance being about 30 Miles from the Fort, They proceeded on the Ice the River being fast froze over for some time past.—

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Temperature The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Jan 20
1805
Clark: a Cold fair day Several Indians at the fort to day

a miss understanding took place between the two inturpeters on account of their Squars, one of the Squars of Shabownes [Toussaint Charbonneau] Squars being Sick, I ordered my Servent [Ben York] to, give her Some froot Stewed and tee at dift Tims which was the Cause of the misundstd

Gass: I went up with one of the men to the villages. They treated us friendly and gave us victuals. After we were done eating they presented a bowlful to a buffaloe head, saying, "eat that." Their superstitious credulity is so great, that they believe by using the head well the living buffaloe will come and that they will get a supply of meat.

Whitehouse: We still continued to have clear cold weather.

some of our Men went up to the 1st Mandan Indian Village, on their return they informd us, that they had been well used by the Indians of that Town, and that they had given them, plenty to eat, of buffalo Meat, beans, & pounded Corn boil'd.—

They informed us, that after they had finish'd eating That the Mandan Indians put a quantity of the same Victuals into a Woodin Bowl. they then brought forward the Head of a buffalo, which they fell down & Worshipped, and then set before it, the Bowl of Victuals, and said (as our Interpreter who was with us told us) Eat this, and tell the live Buffaloes, to come in to us, so that we may get plenty of Buffalo meat to Eat.— They let this Bowl remain before the head of the buffalo, 'till our Men left their Village.— The party who was at this Village also say that those Indians, possess very strange and uncommon Ideas of things in general, They are very Ignorant, and have no Ideas of our forms & customs, neither in regard to our Worship or the Deity &ca.

They are Indians of very Quick apprehension, of anything in their way; and Conceited in themselves to a fault.—

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Temperature Buffalo The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Jan 21
1805
Clark: a number of Indians here to day a fine day nothing remarkable

Ordway: the hunters all came in had killed 3 Elk 4 Deer & one fox two porcupines & a hare. they Brought in three horse loads of the Meat.

the Savages bring considerable Corn to day, to pay for their Black Smiths work.

2 men went up to the Grossvarntares village to trade Some woolf Skins with the N. W. Compy Traders for Tobacco. they Got 3 feet of twist tobacco for each Skin.—

Whitehouse: The weather still continued Clear and Cold,

the two Men that was sent to the hunting Camp returned to the Fort, having the three horses loaded with Elk meat and Venison, they returned on the Ice on the River.—

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Food and Nutrition Tobacco Carrot Temperature Elk Deer Fox Porcupine Rabbit The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Jan 24
1805
Clark: a fine day, our inturpeters appear to understand each others better than a fiew days past Sent out Several hunters, they returned without killing any thing, Cut Coal wood—

Ordway: colder this morning than it has ben for Several days past. in the afternoon five men employed cutting coal wood as our coal was jest Gone.

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Temperature The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Jan 25
1805
Clark: we are informed of the arrival of a Band of Asniboins at the Villages with the Grand Cheif of those Tribes call the Fee de petite veau [French for "Son of the Little Calf"] to trade,

one of our interpeter & one man Set out to the Big Belley [Hidatsa or Gross Ventre Indians] Camp opposit the Island

men employ'd in Cutting the Boat out of the ice, and Collecting Coal wood.

Ordway: clear & cold this morning. the men generally employed at cutting and Splitting coal wood & Setting up the pit &.C.

Gass: All hands were employed in cutting away the ice, which we find a tedious business.

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Jan 26
1805
Clark: a verry fine warm Day Several Indians Dine with us and are much Pleased— one man taken violently Bad with the Plurisee, Bleed & apply those remedeis Common to that disorder.

Ordway: Cloudy & warm the Wind from the South. the party at work Same as yesterday. the Savages brought us considerable corn this day.

Gass: A pleasant day and all hands employed in cutting wood, to make charcoal. We have a blacksmith [Shields] with us, and a small set of blacksmith tools. The blacksmith makes war-axes, and other axes to cut wood; which are exchanged with the natives for corn, which is of great service to us as we could not bring much with us.

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Health Care The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Jan 27
1805
Clark: a fine day,

attempt to Cut our Boat and Canoos out of the Ice, a deficuelt Task I fear as we find waters between the Ice,

I Bleed the man with the Plurisy to day & Swet him,

Capt Lewis took of the Toes of one foot of the Boy who got frost bit Some time ago,

Shabonoe our interpeter returned, & informed that the Assiniboins had returned to their Camps, & brough 3 horses of Mr. Laroches [Larocque with the Northwest Trading Company] to Stay here for fear of their being Stolen by the Assiniboins who are great rogues

— Cut off the boy toes—

Ordway: Cloudy. Some men employed Gitting hay from the prarie for to cover the blacksmith's kiln

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Frostbite The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Jan 28
1805
Clark: attempt to cut through the ice &c get our Boat and Canoo out without Suckcess,

Several Indians here wishing to get war hatchets made

the man Sick yesterday is getting well

Mr. Jessome our interpeter was taken verry unwell this evening warm day

Ordway: Clear and cold. all hands employed cutting the Ice from round the Barge. Got large pry bars & attempted to Shake hir loose but found that we could not move hir without considerable more cutting or other means.

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Native American Tribes Health Care Keelboat The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

Jan 31
1805
Clark: Snowed last night, wind high from the N W.

Sawed off the boys toes

Sent 5 men down the river to hunt with 2 horses,

our interpeter Something better, George Drewyer taken with the Ploursey last evening Bled & gave him Some Sage tea, this morning he is much better—

Cold disagreeable

Gass: Five hunters went out with two horses. In the morning the wind blew and was cold, toward the middle of the day the weather became moderate, and the afternoon was pleasant.

North Dakota Map: 10/26/04 Lewis & Clark Map: 10/14/04 Fort Mandan Map Health Care Temperature Snow The Lewis and Clark Trail University of Nebraska

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This guide last edited 12/17/2005
This guide last revised 11/26/2007
This guide created 12/13/2004